D-Day Comes To Texas

The lights went on “earlier than usual,” in the Governor’s Mansion on the morning of June 6, 1944 as Texas Governor Coke Stevenson awoke to the news that the Allied invasion of France–D-Day–had begun.

Texas Governor Coke Stevenson (center) greets Women’s Army Corps 1st Lt. Ruth Pearce, of Dallas, on June 6, 1944, for forming the “Longhorn Squadron,” of University of Texas women serving as Air-WACS. Brig. Gen. J. Watt Page, state director of the selective service is on far left.

Austin, like many major cities, found itself awoken from slumber by fire or civil defense sirens. In Austin, it was by multiple blasts from sirens at 2:32 a.m. Prayer meetings or “union” church services had been previously arranged for weeks for the day in most Texas cities, by small groups of ministers or by a formal ministerial alliance. Although the date of the invasion wasn’t known, most Texas newspapers were publishing informational items in the weeks leading up to D-Day to let people what signal local authorities would use to alert residents that the Allied invasion of Europe had begun. In some places, the announcements included notice of the time and location of various prayer meetings or churches that would be open for prayer immediately following the announcement the invasion had begun.

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War industries, working around the clock to produce more plains and munitions for the two-front war, paused for silence or prayer when the news was announced in their factories.

“This is a solemn hour for Texans everywhere and it should give a renewed sense of responsibility to Texans to support the war effort until the final victory,” Stevenson said.[1]

This is the story of how Texans reacted to the news the D-Day invasion had begun.

THE PANHANDLE & WEST TEXAS

Coleman

In Coleman, leading up to D-Day, “[a]bout the only subject of conversation on the streets is the invasion. In many homes, maps are studied anxiously,” the county seat newspaper noted.

The news that the Allied ground invasion of France had begun reached Coleman shortly before 3:00 a.m. local time, when the Coleman Democrat-Voice received word the invasion was underway. A reporter for the paper then called “several persons over the city, all of whom expressed much interest in the news.”

When Rev. J. Floyd Johnson, pastor of the First Methodist Church of Coleman, got the news, he and his son, J. Bond Johnson, a newspaper reporter from Fort Worth, went to the church, turned on the lights, and prayed. The church was left open the rest of the day, “for all persons who wished to visit there during the day.”

A union prayer service was conducted that evening at First Baptist Church. At 4 p.m., the First Christian Church conducted a brief service “in observance of Invasion Day.” Names of men from the church who were in the armed services was read during the service. The service was presided over by Mrs. W.F. Gipson, one of the leaders of the congregation.

The Coleman Democrat-Voice published a list of men from Coleman County serving in England immediately prior to the invasion, noting, “it is not known how many, if any, took part in the drives though there a possibility that many of them did.”[2]

Lubbock

A plea from the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal for readers to share their newspapers with others because the newspaper didn’t have enough paper to print copies to meet demand.

A V-For-Victory formation of cargo planes and troop gliders flew from the South Plains Army Air Field over the city of Lubbock early Tuesday morning. The field was the only glider pilot training center in the country.

Around 500 attended a prayer meeting at the Methodist Church.[3]

Aspermont

In Stonewall County, the weekly Aspermont Star was on the streets with a special edition by 6:30 a.m. on the morning of June 6.

A one-sided broadside, it contained the latest news from the Atlantic front, and more. It noted “the doors of local churches were thrown open this morning at 4 as the news came that our men had opened the attack against the enemy, where prayer and supplication may be made in behalf of these our loved ones who have gone into the very jaws of death yu might say, in the interest of all thing we hold dear,” the Star noted in its extra.

“The Aspermont Star is first to bring the people of Aspermont the news of the invasion of allied forces into Hitlerite Europe,” the newspaper noted. “We bring you this little special as a service to our readers who are anxious to learn the details of the invasion.”

At 3:50 a.m. that morning, Grace Hight, a telephone operator in Aspermont, received a call from the invasion office of the phone company that the invasion had commenced. She in turn phoned Reub Baldree the night watchman, and asked him to make “a short blast on the fire alarm.”

The June 6, 1944 special edition, “Extra,” of the Aspermont Star.

“As soon as the alarm was sounded many people of the town and community rushed to their radios and started listening to the first few details that were available.”[4]

The Star called its extra “another scoop,” for its publishers. A.E. Richards, who purchased the Star in 1943 from the Guest family,[5] claimed he owned a weekly in Terry County in 1939 when Germany invaded Poland, and he had been first on the street with the scoop then, too.[6]

Tulia

In Tulia, the Kiwanis Club held a “D-Day Church Relations Program,” although it appears the program was slated well before D-Day. The prayer, led by Rev. P.E. Yarborough, “was dedicated to our boys on the battlefronts on D-Day.”[7]

Hereford

June 6, 1944 was “no occasion for celebration,” in Hereford. D-Day was announced with the fire siren being sounded and was “market principally by a day-long attention to news broadcasts.”

“No time for Jubilation, “D Day for many Hereford people meant that friends and members of their families were going in to dangerous action; and though of course no definite information is available on the number of Hereford men who are taking part in the fighting in France, it is known tht perhaps more than a hundred Hereford servicemen have been in England and some of them were in the attack forces.” Hereford’s population in 1940 was 2,584.

At 5 a.m., the Presbyterian church opened its doors for prayer. The Methodist and Christian churches were opened similarly at 6:45 a.m. “Pastors of all churches report that several families came in for mediation and worship,” the Hereford Brand noted.

That night, a community worship service made up of three congregations was conducted with prayer, singing, and sermons.[8]

Paducha

Church bells and the fire siren woke the citizens of Paducha at 3:32 a.m. local time on invasion day.

“The first impulses of the people varied,” the Paducah Post noted. “Some thought it might be a lost child or boys ringing bells for mischief, but by the time they could get the sleep rubbed from their eyes, they realized what it was,” the paper continued.

There is no documentation of community prayer services in Paducah, but it was a day of prayers and “sadness for mothers, fathers, brothers, and sisters, who have their own flesh and blood over there.”[9]

Seminole

It wasn’t until 3:50 a.m. that Seminole residents were awakened to the fire sirens signaling “that the long awaited D-Day was here.”

The Baptist and Methodist churches were opened for prayer shortly thereafter, and “about a dozen people went to the Methodist church for prayer and a few went to the Baptist.

Mrs. Raymond Tyler, the local telephone operator, sounded the fire alarm after the police in Hobbs, New Mexico sounded the news of the invasion. Because she was getting calls from firemen asking where the fire was, she sounded the alarm again, for a longer period of time.

She was then inundated with calls from the public:

“Immediately she had more calls than she could begin to take as people called to make sure that it was the invasion.

Another operator, Mrs. Lillian Gilmer, realized that Mrs. Tyler would be extremely busy and she rushed to the telephone office to help her. For the rest of the night they both worked as fast as they could telling people that it was the invasion. Of course, the people who knew wanted to be sure that their friends were aware of it, so there were so many calls that the operators were unable to care for all of them.

The phone office was still a busy place by the time Mrs. Tyler left work at 6 p.m.[10]

Pampa

Wesley Eugene Hargrove, reads the Abilene Reporter-News to his sisters, Patsy Eileen and Doris Bernell (right).

In Pampa, sirens, railroad whistles, and bells signaled D-Day. The Pampa News had an extra on the streets before daylight, and special prayer services were held at local churches throughout the day.[11]

Amarillo

In Amarillo, few were on the street, but all protestant churches and Jewish synagogues were open as early as 3:15 a.m. with special night services also planned.[12]

Stamford

“D-Day slipped up quietly on Stamford people,” that Tuesday morning. “No noise marked D-Day,” in contrast to other cities where sirens and church bells were the order of the day.

A community church service was conducted at 3:30 “for special prayer for invasion day,” and all businesses were closed an hour for the service.[13]

Graham

In Graham, the D-Day observances were limited to a morning church service by First Christian Church, and the church being open all week for prayer, and the Oak Street Baptist Church would stay open all night for prayer.[14]

Dublin

On Wednesday, the day after D-Day, a prayer meeting was held on the lawn of the First Baptist Church of Dublin.[15]

Abilene

A crowd gathered at dawn to pray at Heavenly Rest Episcopal Church in Abilene.

In Abilene, churches in Abilene were open by daylight, and some earlier, thanks to the planning of the local Ministerial Alliance.

“Dr. J.O. Haynes, president, said at 3 o’clock this morning that he planned to go to his church ‘in a short while’ to open it and presumed other pastors would have their churches opened by about 6:30 a.m.

Haynes told the Abilene Reporter-News that it had been previously agreed that if the invasion occurred after midnight, churches would open at daybreak.[16]

Meanwhile, at Camp Barkley, outside Abilene, the day included a review of the 12th Armored Division by Maj. Gen. Carlos Brewer.

“We are gathered here in commemorating of the allied invasion of Europe…This is the most signifant in the history of our time,” Brewer said.[17]

Breckenridge

In Breckenridge, the fire sirens signaled that the invasion had begun early Tuesday morning.

“Breckenridge people hovered close to their radios drinking in every word of an almost continuous report of the history making event several score, breaking away to answer the call to prayer at First Christian Church that had been agreed upon previously.”

The north half of the church was filled, and half of the other side was also filled.

“Rev. Roger Hebard said the meeting was not one to pray for slaughter but for our enemies,” the Breckenridge American noted. Barbara Carr played piano for the hymns Onward Christian Soldier and Blest Be The Tie That Binds.[18]

NORTH TEXAS

Terrell

In Terrell, British and American flags unfurled throughout town, as the town was home to a British flying school.[19]

Paris

Planes fly in a “Victory” Formation over Paris on the morning of June 6, 1944.

Churches in Paris opened their doors for prayer at 3 a.m. Tuesday morning. The bells of Holy Cross Episcopal Church rang to call parishioners to prayer.[19a]

Military vehicles streamed through Paris, including the Plaza downtown while a seven-plane “Victory formation” flew overhead multiple times from Cox Field. The group was composed of seven L-5 aircraft.[19b]

Mesquite

In Mesquite, then a rural community in eastern Dallas County, D-Day came “not unexpectedly,” as parents who had not heard from their sons in many weeks kept radios at hand, causing “them to be ready for the real news.”

A night watchman named Sam Futrelle, in the County Shop for District 2, first heard the news, and telephoned others in Mesquite. “Electric lights began coming on at 2:45 a.m. in the darkened homes as neighbors and friends relayed the message.”[20]

Around 5 a.m., a defense worker and father of two boys serving overseas, Harry Shaw, who was getting off the night shift at North American Aviation and had heard the announcement at work, was driving around the city letting people know about the invasion. At some point, both he and J. Perry King, one of the ministers who conferred with the mayor at 5:30 a.m., were both driving, “their car about the streets of the town,” although it isn’t clear if one was a driver and the other a passenger, or if they were in two cars, from the news report.

“The automobile depending on rationed gasoline has replaced the steed, communities are more thickly populated, but the sprit remains the same,” The Mesquiter noted.[21]

Three church pastors conferred with the mayor, N.E. Shands, at 5:30 a.m. and a 7 a.m. prayer service on the steps of the high school was hastily arranged.[22]

Fort Worth

In Fort Worth, a jury that was at work in the courthouse got permission to have a radio in the jury room. They couldn’t have newspapers because they contained news of the case they were deliberating.[23]

CENTRAL TEXAS

Austin

The Invasion Extra of the Austin Statesman.

In Texas capitol city, residents “took the fateful news Tuesday to the ringing of church bells—not the noise of sirens.”

The city elected not to turn on its sirens even though “the mayor received several telephone calls asking that the sirens be turned on,” but he “decided against giving the order.” Miller’s son was a first lieutenant based in England.

“There was no demonstration of evidence of hysteria,” the Austin American noted.

Churches opened and turned on their lights shortly after 3 a.m., as a thunderstorm “rattled over the city, the thunder and lightening almost theatrical in its timing.”

Austin Mayor Tom Miller urged people to, “Pray and buy bonds.”

Around half a dozen flags were on Congress avenue by mid-morning, and there “was a knot of listeners in front of a clothing store where a loudspeaker gave radio news of the allied expeditionary force’s progress.”

On the University of Texas campus, radios were omnipresent, and “some classroom lecturers made only the formal gesture of keeping to their schedule.

Churches were schedule to be open throughout the day. The Austin American reported that attendance at churches was “especially strong” in the neighborhoods around the University of Texas.

University Baptist Church was conducting prayer services “every hour on the hour.” A total of at least 15 churches, all members of the Austin Council of Churches, were open, including: Central Christian, Hyde Park Christian, All Saints Episcopal, University Community, First English Lutheran, First Methodist, Central Methodist, Grace Methodist, Shettles Memorial Methodist, University Methodist, Ward Memorial  Methodist, West Austin Methodist, First Southern Presbyterian and University Presbyterian.

Ward Memorial conducted an 11 a.m. prayer service, and noon service.

Evening services were set at Grace Methodist, Temple Beth Israel, Trinity Lutheran, St. Mark’s Lutheran, and St Paul’s Lutheran.[24]

Cameron

In Cameron, the fire alarm was set off at 3:10 a.m., under the directive of Mayor Charles Smith, to let citizens know the D-Day invasion had begun.

The first news to the Cameron area came from the Santa Fe Railroad telegraph tower. The night watchman there called Frank Richter, “and in a few moments,” the mayor issued the order to let the sirens sound.

“The news reached the city too early for sextons and church bells were silent,” in Cameron.

Many people evidently believed the siren was a false alarm, “and only a few got up to turn on their radios.”

“Prayers were in progress at the Methodist church in the forenoon,” and the Presbyterian Church was opened that evening at 7 p.m. for prayers.[25]

West

West met the news of D-Day “Quietly, Soberly,” according to The West News.

Although plans had been in place in West for the fire sirens to be sounded to announce the invasion, those plans were shelved “because of fear of aggravating the condition of a few of the sick folks who have boys in the service.”

Instead, news of the invasion came first to those who were up and tuned in to the radio, and then called many of their friends. “A few of them listened to the reports the remaining part of the night,” the West News recounted.

Other citizens, the newspaper noted, were not aware of the invasion until they woke up the next morning and tuned in to the radio. Some were not aware of the news until after they’d gone to work.

“An unusual abundance of US. flags, displayed Wednesday in town and even in the residential districts were the only reminders of the historic day.”[26]

Waco

In Waco, air raid sirens and a public address system fed by the newsroom of a local newspaper announced hourly developments. The Waco newspaper issued three extras before noon.[27]

Corsicana

Newspaper officials in Corsicana said they were on the street with D-Day extras “before many knew what was happening.”[28]

San Antonio

No bells, whistles, or sirens greeted San Antonio residents that morning.[29]

McGregor

In McGregor, a joint service was conducted at the Methodist Church just an hour “after the siren told the news here,” that Tuesday morning.

“It was a solemn hour, and one that will long be remembered, for it brought both joy and sorrow to the hearts of all who had long awaited this eventful D-Day.[30]

Rockdale

The familiar signal of a siren, but repeated ten minutes later “as if to make sure that everyone heard it,” brought news of the D-Day invasion to Rockdale.

The Rockdale newspaper recounts how the siren came to be turned on:

“Max Ferrari, Rockdale’s loudest war commentator, said he heard early radio reports of the landings, as reported out of Germany, and realizing that something must be on the way went to town to be ready. When the first official announcement came, he and Chas. Landis, night watchman, turned on the siren. ‘I was afraid somebody might miss it, so we blew it again about ten minutes later,’ Max explained jubilantly.”

“There was no boisterous celebrating; only quiet, calm, and prayer,” noted the Rockdale Reporter.[31]

Eagle Lake

In Eagle Lake, churches were “thrown open early Tuesday morning and many of our citizens with tears in their eyes, solemnly poured in to churches,” The Eagle Lake Headlight noted.

Special services were held in churches across town throughout the day.

The sirens at city hall were set off at 2 p.m. for a “spontaneous outburst of prayer in the city park,” which was presided over by the priest of the Christ Episcopal Church. Businesses closed at noon and didn’t reopen.

The prayer service was actually integrated, and “attended by all creeds and colors.” A black pastor participated in the service as well.[32]

EAST TEXAS

Rusk

At Rusk in Cherokee County, the fire alarm siren awoke the citizenry at 3:30 on the morning of the invasion.

It “brought most Rusk people out of bed and to their radios,” with many staying up until dawn.

Downtown churches were opened for prayer services immediately after, and “a considerable number” attended.

At 2 p.m. that afternoon, the business district shut down and a union prayer service was conducted at First Methodist Church of Rusk. “The church was filled almost to capacity.”[33]

Marshall

In Marshall, fire sirens early in the morning announced the invasion.[34]

Mineola

In Mineola in Wood County, the citizenry learned that the invasion had begun with “the mournful whistle of the ‘wildcat’ siren and a few blasts of the fire alarm siren,” early Tuesday morning, June 6, 1944.

Mrs. Hersel Adams, whose husband, Capt. Hersel Adams, was killed at Salerno, was listening to the radio at about 11:30 on the evening of June 5, and heard a flash that the German radio was talking about an invasion. She remained up overnight, and at 3:32 a.m., she heard the flash the invasion was official, and notified Rev. R. E. Streetman. It isn’t know what church Streetman was affiliated with.

“Several members were called and were in the church by 3 o’clock and from then until dawn number of others were there for various prayer periods.”

St. Peter’s Catholic Church and First United Methodist Church opened their churches sometime after 3 a.m., and “small groups were reported there and at Central Christian Church.”

Evidently, Mineola had a false alarm alerting people to the invasion the prior Saturday. As a result, “the real thing wasn’t quite so shocking and most people seemed to receive the news calmly and soberly.”[35]

Lufkin

In Lufkin, the sound of newsboys “hawking extras,” awoke the town.[36]

Humble

“Perhaps there was not a single tongue that remained still when more than half a thousand” people in Humble met for prayer  and were asked to pray together in front of the courthouse on the morning of June 6, 1944.

The prayer service was convened on the courthouse steps and beneath two large trees in front of the courthouse. “The twin oaks that stood as sentinels in front of the courthouse on Barrett street have furnished the scenery for many a yarn, but never before have they been the altar candelabra for a prayer meeting–and how the people prayed!” noted the newspaper.  The recitation of The Lord’s Prayer, and a general invocation and scripture reading followed the initial opening prayer by a local pastor.

“America,” was sung by a Miss Nuss, a visitor to the town from Plainview.

In one of the only accounts relating to African Americans on D-Day, the Humble Echo noted, “[t]he spirited singing of a number of Negroes in the assembly was inspiringly blended with the voices of others.”

In the days following the prayer meeting, “many have testified since that the feeling of prayerful reverence touched the hearts of all,” after the prayer service.[37]

GULF COAST

Port Arthur

In Port Arthur, major stores closed, but oil refinery and war workers continued working as churches opened for special prayers.[38]

Palacios

Palacios residents learned the invasion was underway when the fire siren was sounded and church bells began to ring sometime early Tuesday morning.

The fire siren and church bells were a pre-arranged signal among a group of ministers, and also signaled for the town to come to a prayer service at First Presbyterian Church from 7:30 a.m. until 8 a.m.  Seventy-five attended the service.

The hymn “From Every Stormy Wind That Blows,” was sung and a reading was given from 2 Chronicles 7:12-15

The Beacon, noting that some did not get the invasion signal and show up for the service, later calling their offices to inquire about it, “makes it urgent that we continue prayer in our homes and everywhere as the President prayed and called upon us to pray in his message of Monday evening,” the Beacon noted.[39]

Aransas Pass

Businesses in Aransas Pass shut down and no alcohol was served in the city in observance of D-Day, June 6, 1944.

Four blasts of the city’s fire siren signaled the start of the invasion across the Atlantic.

Plans made May 2, 1944 by the General Ministers Association to open the churches were put in place, and “A large number of citizens went to the church of their choice for prayer service and silent meditation.”

Drive-ins also shut down, and the downtown area was completely deserted by mid-afternoon Tuesday.

A union prayer service was held that night at the First Methodist Church.[40]

In Houston, most retail stores remained closed for the day. However, 445 churches opened their doors early that morning for 24 hours of special prayer.[41]

Beaumont

In Houston, most retail stores remained closed for the day. However, 445 churches opened their doors early that morning for 24 hours of special prayer.

In Beaumont, blasts from an air raid siren at 2:35 a.m. awoke many residents. However, few residents were up at that hour. Churches were open for prayer by 3:30 a.m.

A ship in the shipyards began playing the national anthem over its loudspeakers around 6 a.m. as 4,000 shipyard workers stood silent for a shift change. The morning newspaper in Beaumont missed the excitement, but that didn’t stop them from publishing a 36,000 copy extra.[42]

NORTH TEXAS

Dallas

In Dallas, sirens signaled the start of the invasion, and a minister, rabbi, and priest led an early-morning prayer on the radio.[43]

“The electrifying symbols of a history-making event roused sleep-heavy Dallas in the early morning hours Tuesday and dawn broke over a city tense with excitement, praying for divine guidance and anxious for more and more news about the invasion,” The Dallas Morning News wrote.

The switchboards of the Dallas Police Department, Dallas County Sheriff’s department, and Dallas Morning News lit up with callers questioning if the alert was indeed real to what units had taken part.

One grandmother, when reaching W.E. Thomas, a secretary in the Dallas County Sheriff’s department, broke down crying and praying when he told her the invasion was on, noting she had two grandsons serving overseas.

“Roving police squadmen reported that the city began bubbling with excitement soon after the invasion news was flashed out but that there was no evidence of injuries.”

When the sirens erupted in downtown Dallas sometime after 3 a.m., what few cars were on the downtown streets pulled over to the curb until the sirens had concluded.

The woken and curious state of the city was actually evidenced by a spike in power usage.

The Dallas Power & Light Company said 47,000 kilowatts were being used just before 3 a.m. By 3 a.m., it was up tio 53,000 kilowatts. Normally, DP&L officials said, that was the usage figure their plants would expect to see around midnight on a typical night.[44]

Wichita Falls

While “papers sold like hot cakes,” in Wichita Falls, “comparatively few turned on radios as early sirens sounded in downtown areas.[45]

Gainsville

In Gainesville, while residents may have slept through the whaling fire sirens, the shouts of “Extra,” from local newsboys of the Gainesville Register came off the presses. It was the highest day for sales of that newspaper since the World War I Armistice in 1918.[46]

Denison

In Denison, fire sirens awoke the town, birthplace of Eisenhower. Prayer services were beginning “before the wailing sound had stopped.”[47]

SOUTH TEXAS

Mercedes

In Mercedes, a “continuous one-minute blast of the local fire siren, which sent practically every person in town scurrying for the radio to hear an actual description of the most epochal event in the history direct from the invasion beach.”[48]

Gen. Alatorre Blanco, commander of the Mexican Army at Nuevo Laredo was among the first to reach the Laredo Times offices in Laredo with the news. The newspaper had an extra on the street by 5 a.m.[49]

Crystal City

In Crystal City, a D-Day prayer service was conducted on the night of June 6, 1944. Additionally, “doors of churches were open throughout the day for those who wished to go there for prayer.”

At 9 a.m. a service was held at the Presbyterian Church; evening services were conducted at the Methodist Church in Crystal City and Sacred Heart Catholic Church.

“Special prayer services are to be held at the Sacred Heart church twice daily throughout the week with emphasis on next Sunday services,” the Zavala County Sentinel noted.[50]

Falfurrias

Church bells and the town’s fire siren at 6:30 a.m. signaled to Falfurrias residents that the invasion of Europe was underway. The signals caused, “instant and mass use of radio,” within the city, according to the Falfurrias Facts.

“A wailing siren and clanging of church bells early Tuesday morning awakened the people of Falfurrias to proclaim that the long-awaited invasion of Europe had begun,” the newspaper noted.

Special “Invasion Day,” prayer services were conducted the night Falfurrias learned the news of the invasion, but the city had been in preparation for the invasion for weeks–knowing the day and time would be a surprise.

Churches across the city kept their doors open all day for individual prayers.

“It is believed that many Brooks county men were in the first assault in as much as the county is represented in the paratroop detachments, air forces, and amphibious assault troops,” the Facts noted. “Brooks county [sic] has given approximately 400 of its young men to all branches of the armed forces and these men are now scattered in every major theater of operation,” the Facts noted. Brooks County’s 1940 population was 6,362. More than six percent of the population of the entire county was in the Armed Forces.  Many of the men already are battle-experienced.

Overall, it was a calm day in Brooks County. “The city as a whole took the news of the invasion quietly and seriously. There were no special event with the exception of church services and all citizens continued at their work.”[51]

Laredo

Gen. Alatorre Blanco, commander of the Mexican Army at Nuevo Laredo was among the first to reach the Laredo Times offices in Laredo with the news. The newspaper had an extra on the street by 5 a.m.[52]

NOTES:

[1] Associated Press. “Texans Settle Down to Work, Pray for Victory,” The Austin American, June 7, 1944, . 8
[2] “Progress of Invasion Is Watched Here,” Coleman Democrat-Voice, Vol. 63, No. 23, Thursday, June 8, 1944, Coleman, Texas.
[3] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[4] “Prayer Service To Be Held At Local Churches,” The Aspermont Star, Extra, Special Invasion Edition, June 6, 1944, Aspermont, Texas.
[5] Stonewall County Between The Forks Of The Brazos. Stonewall County Historical Commission, Aspermont, Texas, 1979.
[6] “Prayer Service To Be Held At Local Churches,” The Aspermont Star, Extra, Special Invasion Edition, June 6, 1944, Aspermont, Texas.
[7] “Kiwanis Hold D-Day Church Relations Program,” The Tulia Herald, Vol. 35 No. 23, Thursday, June 8, 1944. Tulia, Texas.
[8] “‘D’ Day Is Observed Quietly, Prayerfully in Hereford,” The Hereford Brand, Vol. 44, No. 23, Thursday, June 8, 1944, Hereford, Texas.
[9] “Expected D-Day Came Early Tuesday Morning,” The Paducah Post, Vol. 39, No. 9, Friday, June 9, 1944, p. 1, Paducah, Texas.
[10] “Seminole Awakened By Siren To realization Of Arrival Of D-Day,” The Seminole Sentinel , Vol. 37, No. 19, Friday, June 9, 1944, Seminole, Texas.
[11] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[12] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[13] “Union Service Held at Church on Invasion Day,” Samford American, Vol. 21, No. 12, Friday, June 9, 1944, Stamford, Texas
[14] “Churches Have Invasion Services,” The Graham Leader, Vol. 68, No. 43, Thursday, June 8, 1944, p. 1; Graham, Texas.
[15] “Dublin Helps With The Invasion,” The Dublin Progress, Vol. 56, No. 11, Friday, June 9, 1944, Dublin, Texas.
[16] “Prayers Given As Day Breaks,” Abilene Reporter-News, June 6, 1944, morning edition, Abilene, Texas.
[17] “12th Review Climax of Barkeley D-Day,” Abilene Reporter-News, June 7, 1944, p. 2.
[18] “D-Day Alarm Is Answered Here With Prayer,” Breckenridge American, Vol. 23, No. 275, Thursday, June 6, 1944.
[19] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[19a] “Paris Churches Open Doors For Prayer Services Early Tuesday,” The Paris News, June 6, 1944, Second Extra, p. 1.
[19b] “D-Day Is Doubly Noted In Paris,” The Paris News, June 6, 1944, Final Edition, p. 1.
[20] “News of European Invasion Stirs Emptions Of The Folks At Home,” The Texas Mesquiter, Vol. 62, No, 52, Friday, June 9, 1944, Mesquite, Texas.
[21] “Paul Revere Told Of Invasion,” The Texas Mesquiter, Vol. 62, No, 52, Friday, June 9, 1944, Mesquite, Texas.
[22] “News of European Invasion Stirs Emptions Of The Folks At Home,” The Texas Mesquiter, Vol. 62, No, 52, Friday, June 9, 1944, Mesquite, Texas.
[23] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[24] “Quietly and Prayerfully, Austin People Observe D-Day News Without Hysteria,” The Austin American, June 6, 1944, p. 2.
[25] “Cameron Siren Breaks News of Invasion as City Sleeps Tuesday,” The Cameron Herald, Vol. 85, No. 9, Thursday, June 8, 1944, Cameron, Texas.
[26] “West Folks Meet News of Invasion Quietly, Soberly,” The West News, Vol. 55, No. 3, Friday, June 9, 1944; West, Texas.
[27] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[28] ibid
[29] ibid
[30] “The Invasion Started,” The McGregor Mirror, Vol. 56, No. 8, Friday, June 9, 1944, p. 1, McGregor, Texas.
[31] “Rockdale Quiet As Long Waited Invasion Comes,” Rockdale Reporter, Vol. 72, No. 19, Thursday, June 8, 1944, Rockdale, Texas,
[32] “Invasion Services Held In Churches,” The Eagle Lake Headlight, June 9, 1944, p. 1
[33] “D-Day Observed With Prayers, Flags, Radio,” The Rusk Cherokeean, Vol. 98, No. 18, Thursday, June 8, 1944, Rusk, Texas.
[34] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[35] “D-Day Brings Many Mineolans Out of Bed in Wee Hours,” The Mineola Monitor, Vol. 69, No. 8, June 8, 1944, Mineola, Texas.
[36] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[37] “The People Prayed,” The Humble Echo, Vol. 2, No. 52, Friday, June 9, 1944. Humble, Texas.
[38] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[39] “Local Churches Hold Special Day of Prayer On Invasion Day,” Palacios Beacon, Thursday, June 8, 1944, Vol. 37, No. 23; Palacios, Texas.
[40] “‘D’ Day Is Quiet Despite The Intense Interest in The City,” The Aransas Pass Progress, Vol. 35, No. 1, Thursday, June 8, 1944, p. 1; Aransas Pass, Texas.
[41] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[42] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[43] ibid.
[44] “H Hour Finds City Tense, Prayerful,” The Dallas Morning News, Tuesday, June 6, 1944, 2 ed., p. 4
[45] ibid
[46] ibid
[47] Associated Press, “Fire Siren Awakes Denison,” Corsicana Daily Sun, Tuesday, June 6, 1944, p. 10
[48] The Enterprise, Vol. 31, No. 22, Friday, June 9, 1944. Mercedes, Texas.
[49] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.
[50] “D-Day Services Held Here,” Zavala County Star, Vol. 33, No. 7, June 9, 1944, Crystal City, Texas.
[51] “Church Bells And Siren Announce Invasion In City,” Falfurrias Facts, Vol. 38, No. 2, Thursday, June 8, 1944.
[52] Associated Press, “Texans Solemn and Quite After First Invasion Reports,” Corsicana Daily Sun, June 4, 1944, p. 1, 10.